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US

Historic Migration Patterns Are Written in Americans’ DNA

Genetic, geographic, and demographic data from more than 30,000 Americans reveal more genetic diversity within ancestry groups than previously thought.

The following is a press release written by the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard:

Studies of DNA from ancient human fossils have helped scientists to trace human migration routes around the world thousands of years ago. But can modern DNA tell us anything about more recent movements, especially in an ancestrally diverse melting pot like the United States?

To find out, researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) analyzed data provided by more than 32,000 Americans as part of the National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project. This project, launched in 2005, asked Americans to provide their DNA along with their geographic and demographic data, including birth records and family histories, to learn more about human migration.

The research team found distinct genetic traces within many American populations that reflect the nation’s complicated history of immigration, migration, and mixture.

Writing in the American Journal of Human Genetics, the team also reported subtle but potentially important levels of diversity within certain groups, such as the Hispanic population.

They also call on genetics researchers to increase the ancestral diversity of the participants in their studies so that their findings capture more of the genetic diversity in US populations. This will help ensure that precision medicine will benefit as many people as possible in the US.

“Understanding the genetic structure of the US is important because it helps illuminate distinctions between populations that studies might not otherwise account for,” said Alicia Martin, a geneticist in the Broad Institute’s Program in Medical and Population Genetics, a research fellow in MGH’s Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, and co-senior author of the study with Carlo Ratti, director of MIT’s Senseable City Lab. “If we want genetic technologies to benefit everyone, we need to rethink our current approach for genetic studies because at the moment, they typically miss a huge swath of American diversity.”

Martin, Ratti, and their colleagues, including study first author Chengzhen Dai of MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, partnered with the Genographic project because they wanted to understand the geographic patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture across the US over time, and learn how much people’s genetics across the US reflect historic demographic events.

Some findings caught the researchers by surprise. For instance, their analysis revealed a striking diversity in the geographic origins of participants who identified as Hispanic or Latino. The genetic patterns of these participants indicated a complex mixture of European, African, and Native American ancestries that varied widely depending on where participants lived, whether they were in California, Texas or Florida, for example.

Results like this, Martin noted, could hold implications for precision medicine as it becomes available to more and more Americans.

“There are subtle genetic differences within ancestry groups that arise from their population history,” she said. “Those differences will be important but challenging to account for, especially as genetic testing is used by more diverse groups of patients than have been studied so far.”

Google My Business, Vimeo, Podcast Clips, More: Tuesday Afternoon ResearchBuzz, April 30, 2019

TWEAKS AND UPDATES

Search Engine Journal: Google My Business May Offer Premium Features for a Monthly Fee . “Google is sending out surveys to gauge peoples’ interest in paying for access to premium Google My Business features.”

The Verge: Vimeo’s new feature will allow creators to create Smart TV channels. “Vimeo announced (via TubeFilter) that it is releasing a new toolkit called Showcases that will allow creators to show off their videos, including customizable portfolio sites and Smart TV channels.”

USEFUL STUFF

Engadget: Overcast can create clips from any public podcast. “It can be a headache to share a favorite podcast moment with your friends. Unless you’re willing to dive into the file with a media editor, you’ll usually have to share the whole episode and make a note of the time. Overcast, however, might have just made sharing relatively trivial.”

BetaNews: Free test checks website security and PCI DSS compliance. “Good website security is essential to give customers confidence in your business, but for smaller organizations testing can prove difficult. To address this issue, security testing and risk rating company ImmuniWeb is launching a free website security test that can be used by anyone.”

AROUND THE SEARCH AND SOCIAL MEDIA WORLD

PR Newswire: Anonymous Social Media Network Gabble Adds a New Twist to Social Discussions (PRESS RELEASE). “A twist on social media discussion boards has been launched with the Gabble website and smart phone app… Gabble allows users to connect and interact with their existing Facebook friends, but in anonymity. The concept evolved from the interest in friends and colleagues to be able to discuss sensitive topics without the fear of embarrassment or even potential backlash. ”

SECURITY & LEGAL

CBR Online: Docker Hacked: 190,000 Accounts Breached. “Docker, the company behind an open platform for building and running distributed applications, said on Friday that hackers had breached one of its databases, potentially giving them access to sensitive source code on the external repositories of up to 190,000 different customers.”

CNET: Cloud database removed after exposing details on 80 million US households. “In a blow to consumers’ privacy, the addresses and demographic details of more than 80 million US households were exposed on an unsecured database stored on the cloud, independent security researchers have found. The details included names, ages and genders as well as income levels and marital status. The researchers, led by Noam Rotem and Ran Locar, were unable to identify the owner of the database, which until Monday was online and required no password to access. Some of the information was coded, like gender, marital status and income level. Names, ages and addresses were not coded.”

Yahoo Finance: U.S. Supreme Court seeks Trump administration views on Google-Oracle copyright feud. “The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday asked the Trump administration to offer its views on whether it should hear Google’s bid to end Oracle Corp’s copyright infringement lawsuit involving the Android operating system that runs most of the world’s smartphones. The justices are considering whether to take up Google’s appeal of a lower court ruling reviving the lawsuit. Oracle has sought about $9 billion in damages.”

RESEARCH & OPINION

MIT News: Better email automation . “YouPS, which is still in a testing phase, lets users write more specific filter rules for incoming emails. Users can add multiple editor tabs, each related to a separate email mode, and they can also write different rules for each mode, so that their inbox behaves differently depending on the current one. You might not want emails from a campus mailing list during a summer vacation, for example, or you might want the option of muting a pesky emailer who sent too many messages within a short period of time.”

Tom’s Guide: If Facebook Wants Our Trust, Mark Zuckerberg Must Resign. “Type ‘Facebook privacy scandal’ into your search engine of choice, and don’t be surprised if you’re prompted to be a little more specific. Incidents where Facebook was too cavalier with user data stretch back years, and while the particulars change from scandal to scandal, the one constant is the guy sitting in the CEO chair.” Good afternoon, Internet…

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New EdgeStar

Edgestar

The following review is addressed to wine savvies who acknowledge the importance of temperature in wine storage and serving and are searching for a cooler with an extensive capacity. The good news is that the New EdgeStar Cooler is among the units that can easily comply with these demands, due to its 46 bottles capacity, the storing section with individually set temperatures and the brilliantly efficient and sturdy construction. To put it simply this model takes into account all the factors that make for an excellent wine storage solution and innovatively incorporates them. Let’s find out the reasons why the New EdgeStar unit has been so acclaimed by private and commercial customers.

Features

  • It includes two cooling sections, for storing wine varieties with distinctive requirements 
  • Upper section temperature range is between 41 and 51 degrees Fahrenheit ( for white wine)
  • Lower section temperature range is between 54 and 64 degrees Fahrenheit (for red wine)
  • Upper section can accommodate 14 normal size bottles; lower section has a 32 bottle capacity
  • The dual paned doors can be locked and account for an excellent insulation
  • It includes an auto-defrosting feature
  • The interior is light by powerful blue-colored LEDs
  • Rubber has been used to mitigate the noise caused by the compressor and the vibrations
  • Measures 23.5×33.25×22.75 inches, weighs approximately 80 pounds, 46 standard size bottle capacity
  • Low power consumption, 115 V, 300 W, 60 Hz, 2.5 A
  • Upper section equipped with between 1 and eight shelves, lower section includes 1 to 6 shelves (wood)
  • Each shelf includes aluminium capping for better adherence
  • Casing constructed of stainless steel and plastic
  • The New EdgeStar best wine coolers unit has been approved by the ETL

Reputation

Overall, any individual with an extensive collection of wine can benefit from the New EdgeStar significantly. Although mostly designed to work with wine bottles of typical size, removing some shelves can accommodate larger ones as well. It is necessary to point out that this model is among the preferred ones for commercial purposes, due to the high capacity, low noise level and energy efficiency. While it still works on the compression cooling method, the motor has been enhanced significantly, and you will not be able to tell the difference between it and a thermoelectric one.

A further reason to acquire this model is the versatility provided by the two storing sections with proper temperatures. Since white wine and red wine have unique requirements, the only way to store them properly would have been to purchase two different coolers. However, the New EdgeStar cooler has solved the problem brilliantly. The construction of the casing and the shelves, though targeting the functionality aspects, looks excellent and is enhanced by the interior LED light. The singular quarrel with this cooler would be that a few adjustments could have allowed it to accommodate larger bottles, but it is perceived as a minor setback.

Conclusion

To put it simply, the New EdgeStar wine cooler can accommodate an approximate number of 46 wine bottles in excellent conditions, regardless of the assortment. It is compact, well designed, sturdy and versatile, which makes it an excellent purchase. Moreover, it can be used as a countertop, under top or freestanding and takes up quite a small amount of space, if you were to consider its capacity. Overall, the New EdgeStar employs innovative principles to provide the highest amount of storage space, reduce the energy consumption, maintain the preset temperatures constant and give your collection an impressive look.