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sources

The First British Officer Killed in the Revolutionary War

When provincial militia companies fired at the British soldiers holding the North Bridge in Concord, they wounded four army officers:

Unable to march back to Boston, Gould commandeered a chaise in Concord and set out with Hull, who seems to have been more badly hurt. They raced back to safe ground through the hostile countryside.

Somewhere east of Lexington, the lieutenants met up with Col. Percy and the British relief column. Gould briefed the colonel about what had happened in Concord and drove on. But by the time the chaise reached Meontomy, the provincial militia was out in force.

Someone fired at the vehicle, wounding Hull again. Gould surrendered and was taken to Medford. Hull was carried into a deserted house beside the road. When the homeowners, Samuel and Elizabeth Butterfield, returned at the end of the day, they found a provincial man, Daniel Hemenway, shot in the chest but relatively healthy, and Lt. Hull, grievously wounded.

The next day, the Rev. David McClure had been in the Butterfields’ house. He wrote:

I went into a house in Menotomy, where was a stout farmer, walking the room, from whose side a surgeon had just cut out a musket ball . . .

In the same room, lay mortally wounded, a british Officer, Lieut. Hull, a youthful, fair & delicate countinance. He was of a respectable family of fortune, in Scotland. Sitting on one feather bed, he leaned on another, & was attempting to suck the juice of an Orange, which some neighbour had brought. The physician of the place had been to dress his wounds, & a woman was appointed to attend him. His breaches were bloody, lying on the bed. . . .

I asked him, if he was dangerously wounded? he replied, “yes, mortally.” That he had received three balls in his body. His countenance expressed great bodily anguish. I conversed with him a short time, on the prospect of death & a preperation for that solemn scene, to which he appeared to pay serious attention.

A rumor about Hull’s captivity circulated among his fellow officers in Boston, as recorded by Lt. Frederick Mackenzie on 30 April:

Lt. Hull of the 43rd Regiment who was dangerously wounded on the 19th Instant, was left in a house in the Village of Menotomy. ’Tis said the Rebels placed three deserters from the 43rd Regt over him while he lay on a bed unable to move, and that one of those Villains threatened to shoot him for having formerly brought him to a Court Martial.

There’s no hint of such treatment in provincial sources. The head of the Massachusetts Committee of Safety, Dr. Joseph Warren, had written to Gen. Thomas Gage assuring him that Hull and Gould were getting medical care. He invited the general to send out any British army surgeon he chose.

In Igniting the American Revolution, Derek W. Beck writes that toward the end of the month, as Hull weakened, Warren sent Gage another note saying that the lieutenant hoped to see his regimental adjutant. That was Lt. William Miller; he was promoted to captain at the end of the year and was still at that rank when he died in 1789.

Hull died on 2 May. The next day, Gen. Artemas Ward ordered three lieutenants and three adjutants to escort the lieutenant’s coffin to Charlestown and turn it over to the British military. A barge from H.M.S. Somerset carried it across the Charles River to Boston.

On 4 May Lt. John Barker of the 4th Regiment wrote in his diary:

The late Lt. Hull of the 43d was buried today: he was wounded and taken Prisoner on the 19th and the day before yesterday died of his wounds; they yesterday brought him to town as he had requested it.

They won’t give up any of their Prisoners, but I hear they treat ’em pretty well.

(The photo above shows the monument to two British privates killed and buried near the North Bridge in Concord. We don’t know where Lt. Hull’s body was interred.)

Sources of Sephardic and Jewish Genealogy

If you are Jewish and you are planning to trace the history of your Sephardic ancestors, you should know the right links to achieve your goal.

To an amateur genealogist, it is vital to know the best sources. Knowing the right sources will directly link to the right answers. It is like a mathematical equation, you need to know the right formula to get the right answer.

Failing to get the right sources might probably lead to frustration. That is pathetic. It is like getting a flunking grade in a final exam.

Anyhow, don’t get discourage if you think you don’t have a good source to get your goal. Failure and attempts will gradually lead you to the right sources. And instead of being frustrated, you should be the first one to encourage yourself.

The following are the traditional sources of tracing the Jewish and Sephardic ancestry. These sources are frequently applied by the professional genealogists. These are:

Interview. Definitely, this must be started among the eldest family members. Here, you would know the names of your previous ancestors as well as the related generations. You would also know here the places where they used to dwell. Not that alone, you would also get the clues for other possible sources that will strengthen your documentation.

However, the data accumulated through interviewing needs to be verified. You have to be very careful on your documentation.

Marriage registries, old letters, photographs, cemetery records and diaries; these are the classic sources to obtain the information on Jewish genealogy. These sorts of sources are useful for both the Sephardic and Ashkenazim genealogists.

Holocaust records like the records of Arolsen in the International Red Cross including the Pages of Testimony by Yad Vashem are also useful to the Sephardim. This is because many Sephardim suffered on the hands of the Nazis.

Yad Vashem decided recently to produce a list of names of these Holocaust fatalities. And then, he makes it accessible in the so-called electronically accessible database. This was made possible on the first year of the Millennium.

Definitely, this report was very advantageous to genealogists.

Unfortunately, the records of Arolsen in the International Red Cross are deprived to the searching of their families. The records are only made available only if the family can give the precise first name and surname.

Some other sources for a Sephardic researcher are the following:

Ketubbot. This is the marriage contract of the Jewish. Certainly, this is a significant part of Jewish genealogy. The wonderful thing in this source is that it usually presents numerous generations of two sides. Ketubbot is regarded as a bonanza for genealogists.

Archives of Alliance Israelite. This documents found in Paris beholds a marvelous data regarding the Jewish genealogy. This is because during the period of 19th century the Alliance Israelites created an immense effort in building schools and helping the Jews located in North Africa.

Lastly, the Internet, this is the easiest and most accessible form of accumulating data regarding the genealogy of any race.

However, you should also be cautious in getting the data. You can verify it by checking various sources.

Free and accessible sources in your research for your genealogy

Free and accessible sources in your research for your genealogy

Isn’t it interesting to know more about your ancestral timeline several generations ago? If you are on the search for reliable sources that will serve as your reference documents, the internet is a good resource material. It has always contained the vast data that can help in your research. The great advantage when using the internet is that the genealogist can save both money and effort.

Aside from the ancestral timeline, some people also would want to know the details about their recent generations. In the quest of finding this out, genealogy becomes a serious study that takes an investment.

There are some helpful pointers that can give ease to your research. Whether you are new or a professional genealogist, you must know that there could be other researchers that work on your genealogy. One way to find out is to check on the published works of the surnames involved in your family tree. Some of these researchers publish their works on their website for other people to visit. Other helpful tools that can also be found in the internet are the searchable indexes that contain references needed in your study.

The genealogical or historical society is an institution that you can ask help from. They are found in the towns where your ancestors once lived. This is an excellent source of information on how life was during the time of your great, great grandparents. The genealogical or historical society keeps the records of local directories, the list of buried people even in inactive burial spots, and newspaper archives. The advantage of seeking help from this institution is that this is run by volunteers who have been oriented with some genealogical facts. This also contains addresses of other societies which have links to their webs.

Way back in 1800’s, the US and Europe has the long tradition of funeral cards or mourning cards. These are also great sources for genealogists. There are also web sites that deal on the indexing of these cards. You can visit these sites and search for the surnames that you need.

Newspapers are also good sources of local information. They usually contain valuable information about people who have lived a few years ago. The online newspaper archive is a searchable site that takes the place of microfilm reels. However, it would be advantageous if you have some information about your ancestors such as the event where they have been involved. When you search in online newspaper archives, you type the surname and the keyword, which is resembled by the event. The newspaper online is updated regularly that makes their information reliable.

Another research tool that is helpful in genealogy is the indexed census. Aside from this, there are other transcribed records which are also available online. Such records of birth, marriage and death information are available in some databases.

There are various research tools that help in the search of your ancestry. There are free and accessible sources that only proper organization provide.