My Kindle Books

  • www.amazon.com
  • www.amazon.com
  • www.amazon.com
  • www.amazon.com
  • www.amazon.com

admin

9-1-1 Legislation, Robocalls, GameSnacks, More: Friday Afternoon ResearchBuzz, February 14, 2020

NEW RESOURCES

RadioResource International: Database Tracks States’ 2019 9-1-1-Related Legislation. “The National 911 Program and the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) made a database that summarizes 2019 key enacted legislation available. Since 2012, the database has served as a resource for states looking to gather insight into neighboring legislative efforts or improve their emergency communications operations. The information allows states to easily compare recently enacted laws or modifications to existing laws involving 9-1-1.”

TWEAKS AND UPDATES

Motherboard: This App Automatically Cancels and Sues Robocallers. “DoNotPay, the family of consumer advocacy services meant to protect people from corporate exploitation, is launching a new app aimed at helping end our long national nightmare surrounding robocalls by giving you a burner credit card to get their contact details then giving you a chatbot lawyer to automatically sue them.” Oh, if they only had one that worked for land lines…

CNET: Google’s GameSnacks brings bite-size web games to slow phones. “On Thursday, Google released its new casual mobile-gaming collection. GameSnacks, from Google’s Area 120 development lab, is aiming to improve game loading for people using low-memory devices, and devices on 2G or 3G networks. GameSnacks joins the ranks of quickly loading game platforms like Facebook’s Instant Games.”

The Verge: Snapchat is testing a big new redesign. “Snap is working on two significant tests that could reshape its flagship app in a critical year. Tipsters have provided me with screenshots of two ongoing tests that have rolled out to a small percentage of Snapchat’s user base.”

USEFUL STUFF

Search Engine Journal: Citations & Local SEO: The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide. “When set up correctly, citations can be really easy to manage and can lead to improved local rankings. However, if done incorrectly, citations can be a nightmare to clean up. In this guide, I’ll walk you through every facet of citations to help you improve your local SEO strategy.”

Medium: How to Start “Marie Kondo’ing” Your Facebook Account. “Perhaps there are some groups that only meet on Facebook that you otherwise couldn’t participate in. Or maybe you currently use it for your business which makes it hard to leave altogether. If you don’t want to delete it just yet, how about giving it a ‘Marie Kondo’ makeover instead?” I have not deleted my Facebook account yet — please note that glares of icy contempt will be donated to charity if not claimed within 24 hours — but I did remove it from my phone. An excellent decision.

AROUND THE SEARCH AND SOCIAL MEDIA WORLD

Poynter: Why people still fall for fake screenshots. “What is it about fake screenshots that makes people vulnerable to thinking they’re real? For one thing, people often use real screenshots to ‘preserve’ something, like a provocative or erroneous tweet, that might be later deleted. A screenshot can be a signal that something “real” has been exposed. Hoaxers exploit that signal with a fake. And if an original can’t be found, people might just assume it was deleted.”

SECURITY & LEGAL

The Register: A dirty dozen of Bluetooth bugs threaten to reboot, freeze, or hack your trendy gizmos from close range. “The flaws, collectively dubbed SWEYNTOOTH (because every bug has to have its own name these days), allow a suitably skilled attacker to crash or deadlock BLE devices, or to bypass pairing security to gain arbitrary read and write access to device functions.”

RESEARCH & OPINION

Egyptian Streets: Why Egyptian Minister Rania Al-Mashat’s Social Media Activity Matters. “My lack of attention to the other political figures in Egypt and their work could be explained by their little to very much absent activity online. Each time I searched a name, it was mainly the ministry’s main page that would come up, or a poorly activated social media account….Yet Rania Al-Mashat’s social media activity, on the other hand, is active, managed, and distinctive from the official ministry’s account. Though I did not track her increase of followers or engagement over time, one can simply look at the comments and reactions to her posts and recognize how her social media activity is building a profile for her and her work.”

The Next Web: Reuters built a prototype for automated news videos using Deepfakes tech. “The Reuters news company and an AI startup named Synthesia today unveiled a new project they’ve partnered on that uses Deepfakes-style technology to generate automated news reports in real time.” Good afternoon, Internet…

Do you like ResearchBuzz? Does it help you out? Please consider supporting it on Patreon. Not interested in commitment? Perhaps you’d buy me an iced tea. I love your comments, I love your site suggestions, and I love you. Feel free to comment on the blog, or @ResearchBuzz on Twitter. Thanks!

Pre-Registration for NGS Conference Ends Tomorrow #NGS2017GEN

The Ancestry Insider is a member of the NGS 2017 conference social media press.Pre-registration for the 2017 National Genealogical Society Conference ends tomorrow, 27 April 2017. The conference will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, 10-13 May 2017 at the Raleigh Convention Center. While you can register onsite starting noon on 9 May 2017, you must register by tomorrow for meals, events, and workshops. As I write this, some luncheon choices and workshops are already sold out.

According to NGS,

The conference program, Family History Lives Here, features more than 175 lectures from basic to advanced genealogical research, including eighteen presentations on DNA science and methodology. Finding records and effectively using them is the focus of fifty-seven lectures. Among the types of records discussed are a wide range of religious records, military and associated records, North Carolina and regional U.S. records, and African American and Native American records.

Organizations sponsor luncheons during the conference and provide entertaining speakers ($32). The North Carolina Genealogical Society is hosting an evening event, “Pig Pickin” ($45). Pig Pickin’ features North Carolina BBQ, a five-member blue grass band, and local artisans. NGS is hosting its annual banquet with speaker Stuart Watson, an award-winning investigative reporter ($45). 

The conference costs $240 for society members and $275 for non-members. One day registrations are available for $110 (member) and $120 (non-member).

For more information or to register for the conference, visit http://conference.ngsgenealogy.org.

I’m happy to serve again this year as an official social media reporter for the conference.

Ancestry® Expands Reference Panel to Deliver More Precise Results and New Regions

Consumer genomics is a new and evolving field and Ancestry® is at the forefront, constantly developing new ways for you to learn about yourself through DNA. Today, we’re proud to announce that our team of scientists have increased the AncestryDNA® reference panel to more than double its previous size with samples from more places around Read More

The post Ancestry® Expands Reference Panel to Deliver More Precise Results and New Regions appeared first on Ancestry Blog.

“Agree for the Powder to be brought Down to the Mole”


The start of the Revolutionary War changed New London merchant Nathaniel Shaw, Jr.’s business environment.

For one thing, military supplies were much more valuable. On 25 Apr 1775 Shaw asked his connection in New York for “Five Hundred wt. of Powder, fifteen Hundred Flints and Eighteen Hundred weight of Lead.” But those things were already too scarce on the continent.

According to Robert Owen Decker’s The Whaling City: A History of New London, Shaw also urged the Connecticut government to order 400-500 barrels of gunpowder from him. He strongly supported the Patriot cause, even funding the colony’s delegates to the Continental Congress, but he also had a business to run.

On 11 May the colony treasurer placed its order: only 300 barrels. Shaw replied four days later, “you may Depend on my Supplying you with the Quantity of Powder you Mention.” He already had a captain in the Caribbean, John Mackibbin, with a line of credit and instructions to buy whatever gunpowder he could find.

The new book Two Revolutionary War Privateers, by William and Virginia Packwood, reports that on 29 May Shaw sent another captain, William Packwood, back out to the West Indies on the sloop Macaroni.

Mackibbin returned to Long Island Sound in the sloop Black Joke in July. He brought back “10000 Gallons Melasses, 15 Thousand wt. of Coffee, 26 Thousand of Sugar”—but no mention of gunpowder. Shaw dispatched him to Philadelphia on 12 July with “Orders to take the Sugar and Coffee on Shore without paying the Dutys and if it Can be avoided not to pay any for the Melasses.” Business as usual for Shaw so far.

But there was a new wrinkle. Shaw feared that after 20 July Mackibbin would not be able to “Clear out for N London” and perhaps not for any “Forreign Port.” The royal government was about to clamp down on trade with Connecticut for joining the attack on Boston.

Shaw therefore told his captain that his first course should be to load up with flour and barrel staves and sail for Haiti by 20 July. If Mackibbin couldn’t do that, he should try for some other port in the Caribbean, sell the ship for £300, or come home “in Ballast without Clearing out and Get me Two Thousand feet of Good Long Yellow Pine Plank.”

As for what Capt. Mackibbin should do in Haiti, Shaw wrote: “Purchase Gun Powder & Return as Soon as you Can. If that Article is not to be had Purchase Brown Sugar and Coffee. Dont keep this Letter on Board for Fear of Accidents but burn it.”

Five days later, Shaw sent another letter after Mackibbin:

I am Inform’d that there is a Large Quantity of Powder Arived at the Cape And I would have you in Case you Can Clear go Directly for the Cape and when you Arrive there you may Very Easily know wether you Can have Liberty to Trade there or not And if you Can Purchase Powder to the Amount of your Cargoe, and if you Cannot trade there you Can Agree for the Powder to be brought Down to the Mole

The “Cape” meant Cap-Haïtien and “the Mole” meant Môle-Saint-Nicolas at the end of the same peninsula. In other words, Shaw told Mackibbin that if he couldn’t load gunpowder openly at the main port, he should arrange to pick it up at a more secluded spot.

TOMORROW: Mr. Shaw’s new contact in Boston.

Ohio Datasets, Unsplash, ICANN, More: Tuesday Afternoon ResearchBuzz, February 4, 2020

NEW RESOURCES

State Library of Ohio: Ohio Digital Network Creates Primary Source Sets for Education and Research. “The State Library of Ohio and Ohio Digital Network are pleased to announce the creation of eight primary source sets, available for all to use and access at the Ohio Digital Network website. Curated by members of the Ohio Digital Network Outreach Working Group, each of the following themed set of resources focuses on Ohio and American history, and includes links to the primary sources on the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) website…”

TWEAKS AND UPDATES

Unsplash: Meet the Institutions now on Unsplash. “From historical images of soldiers during World War I to baroque paintings, we’re excited that these renowned institutions have shared rich content on Unsplash, making it easier for students and the general public to find new meaning in their archives, creating presentations, artwork, reports, and more. By sharing a selection of their archives on the platform, they are instantly connected to an audience of over 300 million people a month ready to engage with their content.” Desperately relieved that there’s an alternative to the Flickr Commons.

Mashable: Sale of .org domain registry delayed by California attorney general. “California Attorney General Xavier Becerra sent a letter to the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) demanding more information about the private equity takeover of the .org domain registry. The attorney general is seeking answers to 35 questions concerning the sale as well as documents sent between ICANN, private equity firm Ethos Capital, and Public Interest Registry (PIR), which manages the .org domain.”

PC Magazine: Google Photos Tests Auto-Printing Subscription Service. “Everyone with Google Photos uses it for cloud storage, but the platform also serves as a tool for printing photographs individually or in a self-curated album. Now, the Mountain View-based company wants to try out an auto-printing subscription service.”

USEFUL STUFF

MakeUseOf: Microsoft Edge Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows. “If Microsoft Edge is one of the browsers you rely on for surfing on Windows, we recommend adding a few Edge keyboard shortcuts to your workflow. You can discover them all with our cheat sheet below!”

AROUND THE SEARCH AND SOCIAL MEDIA WORLD

BuzzFeed News, and I beg your pardon for the headline: Facebook Won’t Remove This Woman’s Butthole As A Business Page. “The exact street address of the so-called business isn’t listed, but the pin on the map shows the precise location of her former home (she and her family no longer live there). What has really vexed [Samantha] Jespersen is that she’s been unable to get it taken down. Since she discovered the Page in 2015, she’s reported it several times — but Facebook has said it isn’t in violation of its community standards (Facebook removed the Page after this article was published).” What drives me crazy about this is that Facebook removes legitimate businesses at the drop of a hat, but this lady had to endure what is (intentionally or not) essentially harassment for years.

SECURITY & LEGAL

Associated Press: Dating apps face US inquiry over underage use, sex offenders. “A House subcommittee is investigating popular dating services such as Tinder and Bumble for allegedly allowing minors and sex offenders to use their services. Bumble, Grindr, The Meet Group and the Match Group, which owns such popular services as Tinder, Match.com and OkCupid, are the current targets of the investigation by the U.S. House Oversight and Reform subcommittee on economic and consumer policy.”

Boing Boing: Dune logo unveiled at event; copyright claimants rush to remove it from the ‘net. “The logo for Denis Villeneuve’s forthcoming Dune movie series was revealed at an event in France last night. It appears the movie’s producers are rushing to remove it from the ‘net, as photos of the logo are disappearing from popular Dune fan accounts with copyright enforcement notices left in their wake.”

RESEARCH & OPINION

University of Maine: Sporer finds ISIL supporters promote justifications of terrorist group’s violence on Twitter. “Sympathizers of the Islamic State and the Levant (ISIL) use Twitter to promote justifications of mass casualty violence perpetrated against civilians by the terrorist group, according to a new study led by Karyn Sporer, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Maine.”

Tubefilter: The FDA Is Studying Influencers Who Endorse Healthcare Products. “The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is probing the world of influencers who endorse healthcare products. In a proposal published Jan. 28, the agency said it’s already conducted two related studies. One concluded that more people buy drugs and products endorsed by physicians, pharmacists, and other consumers than drugs endorsed by celebrities. The other found that consumers think expert endorsers are more credible than celebrities, but pay the same amount of attention to ads from both.” Good afternoon, Internet…

Do you like ResearchBuzz? Does it help you out? Please consider supporting it on Patreon. Not interested in commitment? Perhaps you’d buy me an iced tea. I love your comments, I love your site suggestions, and I love you. Feel free to comment on the blog, or @ResearchBuzz on Twitter. Thanks!

Anti-Semitic Incidents, Coronavirus Information, Avast, More: Monday Afternoon ResearchBuzz, February 3, 2020

NEW RESOURCES

Cleveland Jewish News: ADL launches new online database to track anti-Semitic incidents in America. “The Anti-Defamation League just launched an online searchable database that helps track anti-Semitic incidents against Jews that have taken place throughout the United States. The ‘ADL Tracker’ will be regularly updated to provide the most recent information available on cases of anti-Semitic vandalism, harassment and assaults reported to or detected by the ADL.”

TWEAKS AND UPDATES

PLOS Blogs: Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. “The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak is both saddening and concerning. The scientific community has come together rapidly to address this outbreak in an open and collaborative manner. As a publisher, we look to support the global response to this outbreak by sharing and amplifying research data and findings relevant to the outbreak…. Here is what we are doing…”

BetaNews: Avast apologizes for selling user data and shuts down its marketing analytics subsidiary Jumpshot with immediate effect. “Avast has been facing growing criticism following an investigation by Motherboard and PCMag that revealed the company’s free antivirus software was harvesting user data and selling it onto marketers.”

USEFUL STUFF

MakeUseOf: 5 Free Guides to Understand Digital Security and Protect Your Privacy . “With the number of data breaches, phishing attacks, and other digital threats facing us today, you need to know how to stay secure when using technology. Check these free online guides to understand digital security and protect your privacy.”

AROUND THE SEARCH AND SOCIAL MEDIA WORLD

Washington Post: It wasn’t just the National Archives. The Library of Congress also balked at a Women’s March photo.. “The Library of Congress abandoned plans last year to showcase a mural-size photograph of demonstrators at the 2017 Women’s March in Washington because of concerns it would be perceived as critical of President Trump, according to emails obtained by The Washington Post.”

New York Times: Why Random Government Accounts Are All Over Your Timeline. “Earlier this month… the San Antonio Water System, which regulates the water utilities for the Texas city, tweeted a joke about Baby Yoda reaching to flush the toilet. In October, the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer fired off a tweet about clogging a friend’s toilet using an image of the widely memed Cleveland Browns quarterback Baker Mayfield. The Department of Transportation in Northern Virginia used a GIF of a confused German shepherd to ask drivers to refrain from speeding.”

Tubefilter: China’s New Digital Stars Are Construction Vehicles–And They Have 40 Million Viewers. “The respiratory illness has sickened nearly 10,000 and killed 213, and with cases presenting in all areas of China, transportation across the country has been suspended, and people have been urged to isolate themselves in their homes to prevent further spread. Stuck there, they’ve been keeping themselves busy by tuning in to digital livestreams–which, obviously, isn’t so unusual. What is unusual is the subjects of these livestreams: two currently-under-construction hospitals, and the people and vehicles building them.”

SECURITY & LEGAL

TechCrunch: Ring’s new security ‘control center’ isn’t nearly enough. “On the same day that a Mississippi family is suing Amazon -owned smart camera maker Ring for not doing enough to prevent hackers from spying on their kids, the company has rolled out its previously announced ‘control center,’ which it hopes will make you forget about its verifiably ‘awful’ security practices.”

RESEARCH & OPINION

University of California Riverside: AAPI Data releases mapping tool for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. “[Karthick] Ramakrishnan, a professor of public policy and political science at the University of California, Riverside, directs the research initiative AAPI Data, a nationally recognized publisher of demographic data and policy research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, or AAPIs. AAPI Data recently partnered with the the national membership organization Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy, or AAPIP, to create and release a simple yet powerful mapping tool…. this digital tool is intended to help journalists, decision-makers, and community organizations better understand the diversity and geographic settlement patterns of AAPIs across the country.”

Gizmodo UK: Facebook’s ‘Clear History’ Tool Doesn’t Clear Shit. “By using this tool, you’re just telling Facebook to put the data it has on you into two separate buckets that are otherwise mixed together. Put another way, Facebook is offering a one-stop-shop to opt-out of any ties between the sites and services you peruse daily that have some sort of Facebook software installed and your own-platform activity on Facebook or Instagram. The only thing you’re clearing is a connection Facebook made between its data and the data it gets from third parties, not the data itself.” If you don’t like swearing, avoid this article — it’s saltier than condensed soup. Good afternoon, Internet…

Do you like ResearchBuzz? Does it help you out? Please consider supporting it on Patreon. Not interested in commitment? Perhaps you’d buy me an iced tea. I love your comments, I love your site suggestions, and I love you. Feel free to comment on the blog, or @ResearchBuzz on Twitter. Thanks!

Taal Volcano, Google One, Meena, More: Sunday ResearchBuzz, February 2, 2020

NEW RESOURCES

Good News Pilipinas: University of the Philippines opens portal on Taal Volcano data, 1st in Asia to offer public access. “The Taal Volcano LiDAR datasets were derived through the use of airborne systems mounted on an airplane. The output of the LiDAR sensor is a 3D point cloud containing points that were scanned. The LiDAR technology was able to generate maps with resolution of up to 1×1 meter which can be used for planning and reconstruction of areas damaged by the Taal Volcano eruption in Batangas on January 12, 2020. The Taal Volcano mapping is free and downloadable by anyone with internet access and by most modern GIS software.”

TWEAKS AND UPDATES

Android Police: Google is killing Google One Today, gives supporters only a week’s notice. “Today Google has announced that it’s killing its One Today service. This isn’t the renamed Google Drive paid storage program, but an app-based donation system you’ve probably never heard of, haven’t used, and won’t miss. Those still using it have a week before it shuts down.”

The Register: Google says its latest chatbot is the most human-like ever – trained on our species’ best works: 341GB of social media. “AI researchers at Google have trained a giant neural network using a whopping 341GB of discussions scraped from public social media to create what they believe is the most human-like chatbot ever.” Just read this story because the quoted conversation between Meena and a human is glorious. Why? Because it was outstanding in its field!

TechCrunch: Snapchat launches Bitmoji TV: zany 4-min cartoons of your avatar. “f you were the star of every show, would you watch more mobile television? Snapchat is betting that narcissism drives resonance for its new weekly videos that put you and your friends’ customizable Bitmoji avatars into a flurry of silly animated situations. Bitmoji TV premieres on Saturday morning, and it’s remarkably funny, exciting and addictive. Think cartoon SNL on fast-forward, with you playing a secret agent, a zombie president or a Moonlympics athlete.”

USEFUL STUFF

Search Engine Watch: The perils of tricking Google’s algorithm. “Google has been regularly introducing algorithm updates to improve the quality of its search results. But it also penalizes sites that employ unethical or outdated practices to rank higher. This can adversely impact a brand’s reputation and bottom line. Ideally, these updates should be used as a guide for improving a site’s UX, ranking on SERPs is an end result that will follow. Read on to know the ill-effects of chasing Google’s algorithms. There’s also a bonus involved! You will also learn some effective tips to stay on top of these updates while boosting your business reputation.”

AROUND THE SEARCH AND SOCIAL MEDIA WORLD

New York Times: Doctors on TikTok Try to Go Viral. “On TikTok, sex ed is being flipped on its head. Teenagers who load the app might find guidance set to the pulsing beat of ‘Sex Talk’ by Megan Thee Stallion. A doctor, sporting scrubs and grinning into her camera, instructs them on how to respond if a condom breaks during sex: The pill Plan B can be 95 percent effective, the video explains.”

Yale News: Collection of Musical Instruments to resume public hours. “Musette, Mayuri, Double Virginal. Yale students may have never heard of these instruments, but they reside only a step away at 15 Hillhouse Ave. The Romanesque building — which holds Yale’s Collection of Musical Instruments has been under renovation since May 2019 — will resume public hours starting the last week of February…. The collection is additionally expanding its online catalogue of instruments. Timothy Feil, who currently works at the collection, noted that the catalogue will provide information for visitors who want to know more about the showcased instruments.”

SECURITY & LEGAL

Neowin: YouTube Music’s restrictions on kids’ content leads to quirks with many Disney tracks. “Google found itself in trouble with the law last year due to YouTube’s and its own privacy policies pertaining to minors. The search giant was slapped with a multi-million dollar fine as it was found to be in violation of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). The company, however, began bringing a slew of changes to the platform ahead of the ruling, followed by official announcements later. As part of those changes and feature additions, the firm brought about certain restrictions on content that creators label as being made for kids. Those very changes, however, might be resulting in some annoying issues on YouTube Music for such content, especially for those from Disney Music.”

Techdirt: CBS Gets Angry Joe’s YouTube Review Of ‘Picard’ Taken Down For Using 26 Seconds Of The Show’s Trailer. “Joe Vargas, who makes the fantastic The Angry Joe Show on YouTube, isn’t a complete stranger to Techdirt’s pages. You may recall that this angry reviewer of all things pop culture swore off doing reviews of Nintendo products a while back after Nintendo prevented Vargas from monetizing a review of a a game…. CBS recently got Angry Joe’s YouTube review of ‘Picard’ taken down, claiming copyright on the 2 thirteen-second videos of the show’s publicly available trailer that Vargas used in the review.”

RESEARCH & OPINION

Mashable: Self-driving Waymo minivans will assist UPS with deliveries. “On Wednesday, Google spin-off company Waymo announced a partnership with UPS, the package delivery service. Soon, Waymo’s self-driving Chrysler Pacifica minivans will be moving packages around instead of humans.”

EurekAlert: DNA extracted in museum samples can reveal genetic secrets. “Researchers have used a vortex fluidic device (VFD) to speed up DNA extraction from an American lobster preserved in formaldehyde – with the results providing a roadmap for exploring DNA from millions of valuable and even extinct species in museums worldwide.”

9News Australia: World-first 3D map shows smoke plumes from Australian bushfires as captured from space. “In a world-first, an interactive map depicting the height of smoke plumes from bushfires during the peak of Australia’s bushfire crisis has been released. It is hoped that the new tool will improve the Bureau of Meteorology’s ability to predict where potentially dangerous smoke haze will move, as well as provide crucial ‘big picture’ information to disaster management agencies.” Good morning, Internet…

Do you like ResearchBuzz? Does it help you out? Please consider supporting it on Patreon. Not interested in commitment? Perhaps you’d buy me an iced tea. I love your comments, I love your site suggestions, and I love you. Feel free to comment on the blog, or @ResearchBuzz on Twitter. Thanks!

Your genes do not need to be your destiny

Margo Georgiadis, Ancestry CEO At Ancestry®, we get out of bed every morning with a single, shared purpose: to empower journeys of personal discovery to enrich lives. For more than 30 years, we’ve helped people learn more about themselves by connecting them to their past so they can gain meaningful insights to inspire their future. Read More

The post Your genes do not need to be your destiny appeared first on Ancestry Blog.

How Many Ancestors Do You Have?

NOTE: This is a repeat of an article I published 2 years ago. The subject popped up again recently so I decided to republish this article again for the benefit of those new readers of this newsletter who did not see the original article. I also made a couple of minor updates to  the original article.

A newsletter reader asked a simple question this week that generates a longer answer:

How many individuals does it take to make up 42 generations? Is there a website or other source that would help me calculate the answer?

I am sure there are such web sites, but you can also calculate the same numbers within a few seconds by using Excel or any other spreadsheet. I used a spreadsheet to generate the following:

# of generations

Total ancestors

1

0

2

2

2 parents

3

6

2 parents + 4 grandparents

4

14

2 parents + 4 grandparents + 8 great-grandparents

5

30

2 parents + 4 grandparents + 8 great-grandparents + 16 great-great-grandparents

6

62

2 parents + 4 grandparents + 8 great-grandparents + 16 great-great-grandparents + 32 great-great-great-grandparents

7

126

and so on and on…

8

254

9

510

10

1,022

11

2,046

12

4,094

13

8,190

14

16,382

15

32,766

16

65,534

17

131,070

18

262,142

19

524,286

20

1,048,574

21

2,097,150

22

4,194,302

23

8,388,606

24

16,777,214

25

33,554,430

26

67,108,862

27

134,217,726

28

268,435,454

29

536,870,910

30

1,073,741,822

31

2,147,483,646

32

4,294,967,294

33

8,589,934,590

34

17,179,869,182

35

34,359,738,366

36

68,719,476,734

37

137,438,953,470

38

274,877,906,942

39

549,755,813,886

40

1,099,511,627,774

41

2,199,023,255,550

42

4,398,046,511,102

43

8,796,093,022,206

44

17,592,186,044,414

45

35,184,372,088,830

46

70,368,744,177,662

47

140,737,488,355,326

48

281,474,976,710,654

49

562,949,953,421,310

50

1,125,899,906,842,620

In 42 generations you have more than 4 trillion ancestors!

Of course, that is far more than the total of all the people who ever lived on the face of the earth. The fact is that there are not 4 billion unique ancestors. We all have multiple lines of descent from many individuals. That is, if we were able to create a complete pedigree chart for 42 generations or more, we would see the same individuals appearing at multiple locations on the same chart.

This is often called “pedigree collapse.” See Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedigree_collapse for more information about “pedigree collapse.”

 

Confrontation at Governor Hutchinson’s House

When we left the “Body of the Trade” in Faneuil Hall yesterday, Whig leader William Molineux had just threatened to storm out of the meeting and kill himself.

Molineux wanted to lead the body to Thomas Hutchinson’s mansion in the North End (shown here) and confront the lieutenant governor’s sons, Thomas, Jr., and Elisha, about their plan to leave the non-importation agreement.

Josiah Quincy, Jr., warned that marching on the acting governor’s house was tantamount to treason. Molineux’s radical colleagues disagreed, but the rich merchants and town officials—even John Hancock—were still reluctant. Or maybe they just disliked Molineux’s confrontational approach.

Molineux’s dramatic gesture was met by an equally dramatic response from the radical Dr. Thomas Young, according to a Crown report now in Harvard’s Houghton Library:

Dr. Young call’d out stop Mr. M[olineu]x stop Mr. M[olineu]x for the love of God stop Mr. M[olineu]x. Gentlemen, If Mr. M[olineu]x leaves us we are forever undone, this day is the last dawn of liberty we ever shall see.

Mr. M[olineu]x was upon this prevail’d upon to return and the following Persons agreed to serve on their Committee vizt. Mr. M[olineu]x Deacon [William] Phillips, [James] Otis, S[amuel]. Adams and Saml Austin

That group was still mostly politicians, not merchants, but they were all upper-class. And they weren’t going alone.

about 1/2 past 2 o’Clock the above persons attended by upwards of 1000 people of much the same stamp of those who waited upon [William] Jackson the day before, set out for the Lt. Govr’s house, when they came before the door the Lt. Govr. open’d one of his Windows and ask’d of them what they wanted;

M[olineu]x replied that it was not him but his Sons that they desired to see—

the Lt. Govr. addressing himself to the whole spoke to the following purport, Gent. do you know that I am the representative of the King of Great Britain the greatest monarch on earth, and in his name require you to desperse—

Which is of course the exact thing that Quincy had warned could happen. But Molineux wasn’t deterred.

about this time his Sons came also to the window when M[olineu]x read to them the vote No. 1 and the demand which immediately follows it [as quoted yesterday]—

the Sons answer’d that they had nothing to say to them—

the Lt. Govr. asked for a Copy of the vote but was told by M[olineu]x that he was intrusted with only the original and was not at liberty to give a copy.

That document could, of course, have been evidence in a trial.

The Lt. Govr. also observ’d to Otis that he was greatly surprised to see him there, who cou’d not be ignorant of the illegality of such proceedings, and further added that he had there in his Eye six or seven People who had been accessory to the pulling down of his house—

That was back in August 1765 during the Stamp Act riots. Hutchinson, who was also a historian, never forgot.

The crowd retired from that house but visited the other defiant importers: Jackson, Nathaniel Cary, Benjamin Greene, Theophilus Lillie, John Taylor, and the governor’s nephew Nathaniel Rogers. They “receiv’d no satisfactory answer from any one of them.” Most didn’t even open their doors. Lillie said that “he had nothing left but his Life, which he would deliver up if they pleas’d.”

Molineux and the “Body of the Trade” seemed to be stymied. According to the Crown informant:

This Evening the friends of Government thought they had gain’d a compleat victory, and numbers of the most considerable Merchts. in the British trade who had hitherto been silent could not help publickly declaring that they now hoped they were releas’d from their bondage as they were convinced should the Hutchinsons, Jackson, and others mention’d before, stand out for a few days that great numbers would join them

Was this the end of non-importation?

TOMORROW: A private deal.