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Out of North Africa

I had previously called Irhoud 1 “The Father of Mankind” and proposed a “two deserts” theory of human evolution whereby our species originated in North Africa, and was pumped out of it to both the Middle East (and especially Arabia, the 2nd desert) and Sub-Saharan Africa during periods of Saharan aridity. This Out-of-North Africa theory (together with the secondary Out-of-Arabia expansion ~70kya) is responsible for the spread of Homo sapiens around the world.

The discovery and re-dating of modern human remains from Irhoud of course adds support to this theory and places North Africa as the most probable cradle of our species, with a comfortable 100kya buffer to the next place where modern humans are detected (the Omo remains of East Africa), and another comfortable 100kya buffer to the next place (Israel and the Skhul/Qafzeh hominins).

The interpretation of these findings in terms of Homo sapiens emerging out of a sort of multi-regional evolution involving all Africa is of course wrong. There is no reason to think of a single species evolving across the huge African continent. The early distribution of sapiens remains are in North Africa, East Africa, and the Near East, and such remains are absent in West/Central/South Africa.

The multi-regionalists lost the game in Eurasia, as it turned out that Eurasians only have ~2% archaic admixture, and they are inventing Multiregionalism-in-Africa.

Whatever finds we do have from Sub-Saharan Africa, some of them quite late (such as the Iwo Eleru remains from Nigeria), others of similar age as Irhoud (such as Florisbad and the recently described H. naledi from South Africa) did not belong to our species. The first modern humans appeared in South Africa with the Later Stone Age (probably associated with the migration of Y-chromosome haplogroup E into Africa), and the Hofmeyr skull (which resembled Eurasians and not the eternally romanticized Khoe-San). Even in East Africa the advent of modernity was not clear-cut (see Omo I vs. II and the more archaic later Herto specimen).

It seems that people were misled into thinking of Sub-Saharan Africa as the origin of our species by the genetic observation of greater genetic diversity of Sub-Saharan Africans. But, this diversity could have come about by admixture between people from North Africa and pre-existing people of Sub-Saharan Africa (both early waves of AMH and non-AMH).

It’s not certain that North Africa will be the end of the story. Fashions shifted from the Near East to East Africa, to North Africa, with every new find. But, the fact that we do find the earliest modern humans in these areas, while we find non-AMH elsewhere (e.g. Europe or South Africa) is gradually constraining the solution to the problem of our origins. My bet remains North Africa; time will tell.

The Legal Power of Genealogy in Colonial America

By the time he was 18, George Washington was a competent genealogist — and he had to be. In Washington’s Virginia, family was a crucial determinant of social and economic status, and freedom.

How did Washington understand his family, and what can that tell us about the world in which he lived and played such a significant role? Thanks to a document long ignored by biographers and historians alike, we now know how fully he grasped the basic truth that genealogy is power.

Inscribed by Washington in distinct sections during the late 1740s and the early 1750s, decades before the American Revolution, the two sides of this document, held at the Library of Congress, help us to see how Washington viewed the importance of his family connections, including as a route to inheritance, and also how these relationships were crucially connected to the lives of enslaved people.

You can read the full story in an article by Karin Wulf in the Smithsonian web site at:

My thanks to newsletter reader Neil Barmann for telling me about this story.

WWII Photography, Teaching FOIA, Photobucket, More: Monday Afternoon ResearchBuzz, June 24, 2019

Hey y’all! The latest Inside Google & Alphabet newsletter is available at . Today’s topics include a new Google investigation in Brazil, rumblings from Australia’s ACCC, Google Play malware, and more! Remember, the newsletter comes out every weekday excepting holidays and it’s free. Sign up here:


WRAL: North Carolina native’s World War II photos digitized. “The State Archives of North Carolina has honored Wilson native Guy Cox by digitizing more than 400 photographs the lensman took aboard the USS Bunker Hill from 1943-45 during World War II.” These are more “candid,” daily life, and portrait photography than military conflict photography, but it’s worth a visit. At least one photo has some (nothing-visible) nudity.

Muckrock: Looking for a better way to teach public records? Read what we’ve learned in Make FOIA Work. “Last August, with support from the Online News Association, we partnered with the Engagement Lab at Emerson College and the Boston Institute for Nonprofit Journalism to explore new ways of teaching public records to students and the broader community. Five workshops, four articles, and a hundred public records requests later, our partners at the Engagement Lab have put together a new website, Make FOIA Work, and downloadable guide on what we’ve learned, ideas to make Freedom of Information work more exciting and accessible, and a blueprint for others to build on.”


The Verge: Photobucket still has your photos, and it wants you to come back. “The company is trying to make a comeback as more than just a site for forgotten photos, though usage has dramatically declined over the years, and it faces significantly more competition than when it first launched in 2003. Once accounting for 2 percent of US internet traffic by hosting photos for sites like eBay and Myspace, Photobucket is now somewhere in the range of the 1,500th most-visited website in the US, according to Alexa rankings.”

Coin Rivet: Everipedia 2.0 launches public beta . “Everipedia – the world’s first encyclopedia built on blockchain technology – has officially rolled out the Everipedia 2.0 public beta.”


RTE: BAI wants to combat harmful content on social media. “The Broadcasting Authority of Ireland is proposing it be given the power to issue notices to remove harmful content, develop an online safety code and to promote awareness of online safety in Ireland.”

The New York Times: In Streaming Age, Classical Music Gets Lost in the Metadata. “When Roopa Kalyanaraman Marcello, a classical music aficionado in Brooklyn, asked her Amazon Echo for some music recently, she had a specific request: the third movement of Beethoven’s ‘Emperor’ Concerto. ‘It kind of energizes me, motivates me to get things done,’ she said. But the Echo, a voice-activated speaker, could not find what she wanted.”

UPI: Cannabis-related companies hit brick wall on social media. “Cannabis and industrial hemp companies that are legal in many states are finding an uneven terrain online when they attempt to promote their businesses or sell products on the Internet.”


BBC: Raspberry Pi used to steal data from Nasa lab. “A tiny Raspberry Pi computer has been used to steal data from Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the space agency has revealed. An audit report reveals the gadget was used to take about 500MB of data.”

Broadcasting+Cable: Sens. Warner, Hawley Team on Social Media Data Monetization Dashboard. “Sens. Mark Warner (D-Va.) and Josh Hawley (R-Mo.) have teamed up to introduce a bill that would require social media platforms and other ‘data harvesting companies’ to provide information to financial regulators and consumers on ‘exactly’ what data they are collecting from consumers and how it is being monetized, and charge the Securities and Exchange Commission to come up with a method for calculating data value.”


Bloomberg: What Social Media Needs Is More Humans. “Rare is the week that doesn’t bring some new controversy over someone or something being banned from Twitter or Facebook for being too offensive. (Latest: a Led Zeppelin album cover.) As regular readers know, I prefer more speech to less speech, but this column isn’t about what content rules private companies should enforce. Today I’m wearing my fair-process hat. These mighty controversies over kicking users off social media would be mightily reduced if there was a better process for making the decisions. And I have one. I can summarize my proposal this way: Human at the front end, human in the middle, human at the back end.” Good afternoon, Internet…

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Deepest Neandertal mtDNA split

The authors interpret the new result from HST as placing a lower boundary on an introgression from Africans to Neandertals at more than 290kya, which explains why Africans are genomically closer to Neandertals than to Denisovans.

Of course, when one looks at the mitochondrial phylogeny, it has the form:

(Denisovans, (Neandertals, Modern Humans))

Within the Modern Humans, Eurasians are a branch of a tree which is mostly African. This has been interpreted for decades as evidence for the Out of Africa hypothesis for the origin of Modern Humans. But, within the phylogeny as a whole, Modern Humans are a branch of the Eurasian tree. This has not (why?) in general been interpreted as evidence for Out of Eurasia for the common ancestor of Modern Humans and Neandertals.

It seems to me that this hypothesis, that Modern Humans and Neandertals stem from a non-African ancestor (a non-African population of H. heidelbergensis, for example), has much to recommend it.

Eurasia has twice the size of Africa and has been home to hominins for ~1.8 million years. It was inhabited by diverse hominins, and thanks to blind luck we discovered that as late as a few tens of thousands years ago, it also sported two of the populations that split off before anyone else: first H. floresiensis, and second Denisovans.

While a North African source of modern humans is plausible, the data seems to favor a Eurasian origin of the (Modern Human, Neandertal) ancestor.

Nature Communications 8, Article number: 16046 (2017) doi:10.1038/ncomms16046

Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals

Cosimo Posth, Christoph Wißing, Keiko Kitagawa, Luca Pagani, Laura van Holstein, Fernando Racimo, Kurt Wehrberger, Nicholas J. Conard, Claus Joachim Kind, Hervé Bocherens & Johannes Krause

Ancient DNA is revealing new insights into the genetic relationship between Pleistocene hominins and modern humans. Nuclear DNA indicated Neanderthals as a sister group of Denisovans after diverging from modern humans. However, the closer affinity of the Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to modern humans than Denisovans has recently been suggested as the result of gene flow from an African source into Neanderthals before 100,000 years ago. Here we report the complete mtDNA of an archaic femur from the Hohlenstein–Stadel (HST) cave in southwestern Germany. HST carries the deepest divergent mtDNA lineage that splits from other Neanderthals ∼270,000 years ago, providing a lower boundary for the time of the putative mtDNA introgression event. We demonstrate that a complete Neanderthal mtDNA replacement is feasible over this time interval even with minimal hominin introgression. The highly divergent HST branch is indicative of greater mtDNA diversity during the Middle Pleistocene than in later periods.


Minoans and Mycenaeans

It is great to finally see the first data from the most ancient Greeks (Mycenaeans) and also the Cretan Minoans:

  • Ancestrally. both Mycenaeans and Minoans were basically Mediterranean, well outside the variation of most Europeans and Near Easterners and >75% from early European-Anatolian farmers.
  • Phenotypically, they were dark-haired/eyed
  • They weren’t pure Mediterraneans, but also partly “West_Asian”. Bronze Age people from S.W. Anatolia were even more “West_Asian”.
  • Mycenaeans also had some “Ancient North Eurasian” ancestry, which may have come from either the north or east of Greece.
  • Two Minoans and a Mycenaean were haplogroup J2, one Minoan was G.
  • One high-status Mycenaean female from Messenia was not different from the other three Mycenaeans.

Modern Greeks from Greece are more “northern”, more “European”, and less “Mediterranean” than the Mycenaeans. Bust, Fst-wise Modern Greeks (and assorted neighbors) are still fairly close to Mycenaeans, more so than other people from Europe and the Middle East:

Nature (2017) doi:10.1038/nature23310

Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans

Iosif Lazaridis, Alissa Mittnik, Nick Patterson, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Saskia Pfrengle, Anja Furtwängler, Alexander Peltzer, Cosimo Posth, Andonis Vasilakis, P. J. P. McGeorge, Eleni Konsolaki-Yannopoulou, George Korres, Holley Martlew, Manolis Michalodimitrakis, Mehmet Özsait, Nesrin Özsait, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Michael Richards, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Yannis Tzedakis, Robert Arnott, Daniel M. Fernandes, Jeffery R. Hughey, Dimitra M. Lotakis, Patrick A. Navas, Yannis Maniatis, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos, Kristin Stewardson, Philipp Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich, Johannes Krause & George Stamatoyannopoulos

The origins of the Bronze Age Minoan and Mycenaean cultures have puzzled archaeologists for more than a century. We have assembled genome-wide data from 19 ancient individuals, including Minoans from Crete, Mycenaeans from mainland Greece, and their eastern neighbours from southwestern Anatolia. Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean1, 2, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus3 and Iran4, 5. However, the Mycenaeans differed from Minoans in deriving additional ancestry from an ultimate source related to the hunter–gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia6, 7, 8, introduced via a proximal source related to the inhabitants of either the Eurasian steppe1, 6, 9 or Armenia4, 9. Modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the Early Neolithic ancestry. Our results support the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations.


Free Exhibit Hall at #NGS2017GEN

The Ancestry Insider is a member of the NGS 2017 conference social media press.The 2017 National Genealogical Society conference started today (10 May 2017) in Raleigh, North Carolina. The exhibit hall is free, so even if you don’t register for classes, come see mini-classes, product demos, product announcements, sell prices, and give-away prizes. If you are in the area, you should come down and check it out at the Raleigh Convention Center.

The exhibit hall opens at 9:00am each morning with the exception of 9:30 on Wednesday. It closes at 5:30pm each day, with the exception of 3:00pm Saturday.
The Ancestry booth presentation schedule for Wednesday, 10 May is:


Ancestry, Thursday, 11 May:


Ancestry, Friday, 12 May:


Ancestry, Saturday, 13 May:


Other vendors do product demos, either on a schedule or by request. Lisa Louise Cooke included the Genealogy Gems schedule in the conference bag:


Stop by the National Genealogical Society’s booth to enter daily drawings, buy their latest books, and get books signed by the authors. Judging from the advertising inserts in the conference bag, I imagine at the MyHeritage booth they would give you a coupon code for 30% off MyHeritage subscriptions. Likewise for a 15% coupon code from jigsaw genealogy. Genealogical Studies might give you a promo code for a free course and let you enter a drawing for additional free courses. Excelsior College has a drawing for an AncestryDNA kit.

It’s not too late to register for one or more days of the conference. Come on down and check it out.

Oh, and FamilySearch is offering free accounts in their booth. Winking smile

"A Mother’s Love ….. or Something Else" by Peter E. Small: Part VII

Genea-Musings reader Peter E. Small solved a family genealogical mystery and wrote a report about it, and I offered to publish his work on my blog.

This will be a multi-part series posted over several weeks – probably on Tuesdays and Thursdays.  Earlier parts were published in:

*  Prologue:
*  Part I:
*  Part II:
*  Part III:
*  Part IV:
*  Part V:
*  Part VI:


A Mother’s Love…..or something else?
 A True Genealogical Mystery Solved

 Copyright © 2019 Peter E. Small, All Rights Reserved


Pleased to meet you, Hope you guess my name. But what’s puzzling you, Is the nature of my game… “Sympathy for the Devil” – The Rolling Stones

Finding Paul C. Dormitzer, Jr’s birth record was a very satisfying result to what seemed to be an
insurmountable impasse.
Many hours were devoted to searching every possible resource I could think of to find yet one more
person that didn’t exist, Paul C. Small.
Now I had documented proof of his actual name, date and place of birth and parentage. Things were
beginning to fall into place. Smooth sailing, full speed ahead. One would think.
But something unexpected happened. It was “deja vu all over again” to quote Yogi Berra.
As I began researching young master Dormitzer it became evident that there were a limited number of people with that surname. The majority of them were either in the Midwest or an area centered on Boston, Massachusetts. A standard search on for Paul Clifford Dormitzer born 1905 +/- 2 years, etc. returned no results. Changes were made to the search criteria which, in turn, gleaned the same negative results. Similar searches were performed on the Family Search and Google websites and they too did not find my prey.

“One step forward, two steps back” was not exactly the phrase I was thinking of after several hours of
searching and finding no results at all for Paul C. Dormitzer, the younger.

I had located his birth in a 1905 Washington State register. He was enumerated as Paul C. Small in the 1910 and 1920 Census’. He was too young to have registered for the WWI draft in 1917/18. Was the name Dormitzer mangled beyond recognition by an enumerator or a transcriber? Had he relocated to, and died, in a state whose records were not available? For whatever reason, my new found fish had gotten away.

I put Paul Clifford Dormitzer on the back burner and turned my attention to Austin Manford Small’s
oldest son Lester. A copy of the newspaper clipping which reported him missing in action during WWI sat on top of a stack of papers on the corner of my desk. The reference to Lester being the half-brother of a Lieutenant J.S. Smith still intrigued me and I initiated a search to find their family ties.

I started by reading both books, about trench warfare, which were authored by Lieutenant J.S. Smith.
Neither mentioned Lester Austin Small. His obituary in The Canadian Statesman newspaper dated 31
August 1950 made no mention of family members other than his father and mother. They were referred to as “the late W.R. Smith (sic) of Port Hope and Mrs. Smith.

A search for Carrie Mason’s first husband Wallace Burdick Smith produced many results. They included documents supporting his birth, marriages and death, etc. Several Family Trees, on both the Ancestry and Family Search websites, were also included as a result of the search.

As previously reported Wallace and Carrie had one daughter and two sons. The Family Trees, in the
search results, included a third son Paul C. Smith. The Tree owners recorded his birth as 24 November 1908 or 1907 in Seattle, Washington without a primary source citation.”

So, Paul C. Dormitzer, Jr.and/or Paul C. Small had not died, as I had hypothesized. Instead, the two had some how morphed into a Paul C. Smith with a different year of birth. What was the impetus of this metamorphosis?

There are 16 births for 24 November 1908 recorded in the State of Washington Birth Register. None of them has the surname Smith or anything which might be misconstrued to be Smith.

I had performed a cursory review of several “Public” Family Trees on Ancestry which included Paul C. Smith. Carrie A. Smith being Paul C. Smith’s mother was the closest thing to reality in the trees I reviewed. 

Reviewing unsubstantiated information was a waste of time. It also may have resulted in me spinning my wheels by chasing another non-existent phantom.

I tried inputting various search criteria in Ancestry’s “Search” function. When asked for a “Place your ancestor might have lived” I alternated between Washington State and California.

The search using Washington State yielded a California Death Index, 1940-1997 result for Paul C. Smith who was born 24 November 1908 in Washington State and died 15 June 1976 in San Mateo, California. This was, possibly, the source for his birth date in some of the Family Trees. Not an unusual transgression. I plead guilt to using birth dates from the Social Security Death Index when a legitimate source could not be found.

I do record a comment in the “notes” section of my genealogical database program highlighting that fact. Using California as part of the search function resulted in a 1940 enumeration of a San Francisco entry for a Paul C. Smith who was born in Washington State in 1909. He was single and worked as a journalist for a newspaper.

A light came on and I remembered that one of the Family Trees I had reviewed included 28 “facts” and one of those “facts” for Paul Clifford Smith was that he was the Editor and General Manager of the San Francisco Chronicle.

I returned to the tree for a second look. Most of the “fact” entries were not your usual BMD (birth,
marriage and death) type entries. Instead, the tree owner recorded almost every major event in his life, year-by-year, in chronological order. When he graduated high school, all the different jobs he had worked, his military service, etc. were all listed. Unless Paul C. Smith and the Tree owner were very closely related, which didn’t seem probable, where were all these “facts,” which were not sourced, coming from?

If Paul Clifford Smith had been the San Francisco Chronicle Editor and General Manager our friends at Google would most likely know about it. Within a few minutes I was reviewing pages of items which referred to my “wayward son.” Evidently, in 1964 Mr. Smith had written his autobiography, the title of which was Personal File. This was likely the source for all those “facts” in the family tree I had perused.

My next stop was to where I found and purchased a copy of Personal File. Once the book was in my possession it would not take much of a detective to unravel the mystery surrounding Paul Clifford Smith.


Randy’s NOTE:  Stay tuned for the next installment of this multi-chapter report.  I will add all of the chapters to this post, and the other chapter posts, as they are published. The chapters to date are:

My thanks to Peter for sharing this mystery and its’ solution with me and the Genea-Musings readers.

The URL for this post is:

Copyright (c) 2019, Peter E. Small

Please comment on this post on the website by clicking the URL above and then the “Comments” link at the bottom of each post.  Share it on Twitter, Facebook, or Pinterest using the icons below.  Or contact me by email at

When Your Family History Meets Technology

Throughout history, populations have been on the move. The Pilgrims moved to America to escape religious intolerance. And throughout time, humans have relocated to find refuge and/or opportunity. But did you know that those journeys can be reflected in your DNA? Ancestry scientists can now detect groups of people based on DNA connections (matches) that Read More

The post When Your Family History Meets Technology appeared first on Ancestry Blog.

“A bayonet wrested from one of the pursuers”

Yesterday I quoted a deposition by a sergeant of the 29th Regiment about his run-in with John Ruddock, justice of the peace and captain of militia in Boston’s North End, 250 years ago this month.

Justice Ruddock was used to getting his way in that neighborhood. He was a big man—probably 300 pounds or more. In September 1766 he told Sheriff Stephen Greenleaf that he was “Unable to Walk far [and] must be Carried in his Chaise.” At that time, Ruddock was rattling off excuses why he couldn’t come help the sheriff and Customs officers search the storehouse of Daniel Malcom for smuggled goods. Because Ruddock was no fan of royal officials.

When the Crown government stationed troops in Boston in 1768, Ruddock was among their most active opponents. He was one of the magistrates who prosecuted Capt. John Willson for allegedly encouraging enslaved Bostonians to revolt. He arrested soldiers for disturbing the peace in both January and February 1769.

Sgt. John Norfolk of the 14th Regiment complained about another such confrontation:

That on or about the 22d. February 1769, in the evening, he heard a great noise in the street; and found it was occasioned by some Soldiers and Inhabitants who were at high words amongst whom was one Ruddock, who said he was a Justice of the peace, and expressed the words, Go fetch my broad sword and Fusee and Damn the Scoundrels, let us drive the Bloody backs to their Quarters, Send for my Company of Men, for I think we are men enough for them.

He the deponent did what was in his power to prevent their Quarreling and in striving to part the Soldiers and Inhabitants Received great abuses from a son of the said Ruddocks who took him by the hair and pulled him into a passage leading into the yard of Said Ruddocks house, shutting the Door upon him, and by repeated blows laid him on the ground quite insensible after he came to himself thay opened the door and kick’d him out of the passage, at the same time they took the opportunity of taking him his side, his Bayonet which he wore (being then a Corporol), and which is now in the possession of said Ruddock who hath refused to return it tho’ properly demanded, both by himself and a Serjeant sent By his Captain for that purpose.

According to Norfolk, Justice Ruddock wasn’t slowed at all by his weight that night. And his son—either John, Jr., or Abiel—yanked him into the family home.

Of course, the justice had his own view of the situation. He thought he was keeping the peace in the face of rowdy military men. Here’s how the Whigs reported the same event for newspapers in other colonies:

As some sailors were passing near Mr. Justice Ruddock’s house, the other night, with a woman in company, they were met by a number of soldiers, one of whom, as usual with those people, claimed the woman for his wife; this soon bro’t on a battle in which the sailors were much bruised, and a young man of the town, who was only a spectator, received a considerable wound on his head; a great cry of murder, brought out the justice, and his son, into the street; when the former who is a gentleman of spirit, immediately laid his hands upon two of the assailants, and called out to one who pretended to be an officer, and all other persons present, requiring them in his Majesty’s name to assist him as a magistrate, in securing those rioters;

instead of this, he was presently surrounded with thirty or forty soldiers, who had their bayonets in their hands, notwithstanding the unseasonable time of night; some of whom endeavoured to loose his hold of the persons he had seized, but not being able to do it, they then made at him with their fists and bayonets; when he received such blows as obliged him to seek his safety by flight;

they struck down a young woman at his door holding out a candle, and followed him and son into the entry-way of his house with their bayonets, uttering the most profane & abusive language, and swearing they would be the death of them both;

upon the first assault given to the magistrate, one of the persons present posted away to the Town-House, and acquainted the commanding officer of the picquet guard, of what was taking place; but it seems the officer did not apprehend himself at liberty to order a party out to secure, or disperse those riotous drunken soldiers.

Due enquiry is making for the discovery of those daring offenders, in order to their being presented to the grand jury, a bayonet wrested from one of the pursuers in the entry, may lead to a knowledge of the owner, and be a means of procuring proof.

The bayonet that the Ruddocks came away with is the link between these two accounts.

On 27 March, the Whigs reported a grand jury had brought charges “against a number of soldiers, for assaulting with drawn cutlasses and bayonets; smiting and wounded [sic], John Ruddock, Esq; one of his Majesty’s justices of the peace, when suppressing a riot at the north part of the town, late at night, in which they were actors.”

As of 21 April the royal judges still hadn’t begun that trial, the Whigs reported, “nor has any thing been done upon it, as we can yet learn.” Norfolk said nothing about being tried, so probably the whole matter dropped, leaving everyone angry.

New Records on FamilySearch from May 2019

The following announcement was written by FamilySearch:

FamilySearch expanded its free online archives in May of 2019 with almost 14 million new indexed family history records from all over the world. Over 387,000 new digital images were added as well. New historical records were added from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, England, France, Italy, Nicaragua, Peru, Poland, Scotland, South Africa, Spain, the Ukraine,  and the United States, which includes Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah,and Washington. United States records also include Confederate Officers Card Indexes, Native American Eastern Cherokee Indian Reservation Rolls, and Obituaries from the American Historical Society of Germans from Russia. FamilySearch also added digital images from Alaska, BillionGraves,and Spain.

Find your ancestors using these free archives online, including birth, marriage, death, and church records. Millions of new genealogy records are added each month to make your search easier.

Country Collection Indexed Records Digital Images Comments
Argentina Argentina, Corrientes, Civil Registration, 1880-1930 37,753 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Argentina Argentina, Corrientes, Catholic Church Records, 1734-1977 72 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Australia Australia, South Australia, School Admission Registers, 1873-1985 1,717 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Australia Australia, South Australia, Will and Probate Records 3,229 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Brazil Brazil, São Paulo, Civil Registration, 1925-1995 207,754 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Brazil Brazil, São Paulo, Civil Registration, 1925-1995 1,848,685 0 New indexed records collection
Canada Canadian Headstones 1,882,916 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Canada Canada, Nova Scotia, Records of Aliens pre-examined at Halifax, 1923-1933 16,175 0 New indexed records collection
Cape Verde Cape Verde, Catholic Church Records, 1787-1957 9,631 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
England England, Hampshire Parish Registers, 1538-1980 40 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
England England, Northamptonshire, Non-conformist Records, 1840-1894 3,020 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
France France, Vienne, Census, 1836 3,362 0 New indexed records collection
Italy Italy, Trento, Diocesi di Trento, Catholic Church Records, 1548-1937 33,197 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Nicaragua Nicaragua Civil Registration, 1809-2013 59,266 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Other BillionGraves Index 338,467 338,467 Added indexed records and images to an existing collection
Peru Peru, Amazonas, Civil Registration, 1935-1999 5,618 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Peru Peru, Lima, Civil Registration, 1874-1996 123,377 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Poland Poland, Radom Roman Catholic Church Books, 1587-1966 13,835 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Scotland Scotland Census, 1901 4,437,987 0 New indexed records collection
South Africa South Africa, Pietermaritzburg Estate Files 1846-1950 1,547 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
Spain Spain, Soldier Personal Service Files, 1835-1940 0 48,650 Added images to an existing collection
Ukraine Ukraine, Kyiv Orthodox Consistory Church Book Duplicates, 1734-1930 438,196 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United Kingdom Great Britain, War Office Registers, 1772-1935 309,802 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Alabama, Southern Claims Commission Approved Claims, 1871-1880 5,248 0 New indexed records collection
United States Alabama, World War I Service Cards, 1917-1919 1,058 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Alaska, Pioneer Home discharge index, 1913-1958 3,973 0 New indexed records collection
United States Alaska, Vital Records, 1816-1959 0 92 Added images to an existing collection
United States Arizona, Mesa LDS Family History Center, Obituary Index, 1959-2014 852,446 0 New indexed records collection
United States California, Pioneer Migration Index, Compiled 1906-1935 241 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Delaware, World War I Servicemen Records, 1917-1919 5 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Illinois, Cook County Marriages, 1871-1920 10 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Kansas, Gove County Enumeration Books and List of Residents, 1909-1950 1,703 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Mississippi, World War I Service Cards, 1917-1919 528 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Missouri, Confederate Pension Applications and Soldiers Home Applications, 1911-1938 368 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Montana, Rosebud County Records, 1878-2011 108 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Montana, Sanders County Records, 1866-2010 10 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States New Jersey, Jersey City, Holy Name Cemetery, Card Index of Interment, 1849-1984 42,736 0 New indexed records collection
United States New York State Census, 1905 30,556 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Ohio Tax Records, 1800-1850 1,670,429 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Ohio, Columbus, Union Cemetery, Burial Records, ca. 1878-1980 54,081 0 New indexed records collection
United States Ohio, County Naturalization Records, 1800-1977 145 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Ohio, World War I Statement of Service Cards, 1914-1919 1,420 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Ohio, World War I, Enrollment Cards, 1914-1918 230,784 0 New indexed records collection
United States Oklahoma, School Records, 1895-1936 165,566 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Oregon, Yamhill County Records, 1857-1963 82 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Board of Health Birth Return Records, 1908-1911 9,198 0 New indexed records collection
United States Texas, Cooke County, Deeds, 1895-1924 1,738 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Texas, El Paso Alien Arrivals, 1909-1924 6,722 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Texas, Gonzales County, Birth Records, 1878-1945 74,466 0 New indexed records collection
United States Texas, Gonzales County, School Records, 1910-1970 447,043 0 New indexed records collection
United States Texas, Swisher County Records, 1879-2012 70 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States United States Confederate Officers Card Index, 1861-1865 104,563 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States United States, Florida, Index to Alien Arrivals by Airplane at Miami, 1930-1942 183 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States United States, Native American, Eastern Cherokee Indian Reservation Rolls, 1848-1970 9 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States United States, Obituaries, American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, 1899-2012 374,380 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Utah, Salt Lake County, Enrolled Militia, 1895 8,901 0 New indexed records collection
United States Utah, World War I Army Servicemen Records Abstracts, 1914-1918 18,884 0 New indexed records collection
United States Utah, World War II Index to Army Veterans of Utah, 1939-1945 42,317 0 New indexed records collection
United States Washington, Pierce County Marriage Returns, 1891-1938 378 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection
United States Washington, World War I Veteran’s Compensation Fund Application Records, 1921-1925 258 0 Added indexed records to an existing collection