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The First British Officer Killed in the Revolutionary War

When provincial militia companies fired at the British soldiers holding the North Bridge in Concord, they wounded four army officers:

Unable to march back to Boston, Gould commandeered a chaise in Concord and set out with Hull, who seems to have been more badly hurt. They raced back to safe ground through the hostile countryside.

Somewhere east of Lexington, the lieutenants met up with Col. Percy and the British relief column. Gould briefed the colonel about what had happened in Concord and drove on. But by the time the chaise reached Meontomy, the provincial militia was out in force.

Someone fired at the vehicle, wounding Hull again. Gould surrendered and was taken to Medford. Hull was carried into a deserted house beside the road. When the homeowners, Samuel and Elizabeth Butterfield, returned at the end of the day, they found a provincial man, Daniel Hemenway, shot in the chest but relatively healthy, and Lt. Hull, grievously wounded.

The next day, the Rev. David McClure had been in the Butterfields’ house. He wrote:

I went into a house in Menotomy, where was a stout farmer, walking the room, from whose side a surgeon had just cut out a musket ball . . .

In the same room, lay mortally wounded, a british Officer, Lieut. Hull, a youthful, fair & delicate countinance. He was of a respectable family of fortune, in Scotland. Sitting on one feather bed, he leaned on another, & was attempting to suck the juice of an Orange, which some neighbour had brought. The physician of the place had been to dress his wounds, & a woman was appointed to attend him. His breaches were bloody, lying on the bed. . . .

I asked him, if he was dangerously wounded? he replied, “yes, mortally.” That he had received three balls in his body. His countenance expressed great bodily anguish. I conversed with him a short time, on the prospect of death & a preperation for that solemn scene, to which he appeared to pay serious attention.

A rumor about Hull’s captivity circulated among his fellow officers in Boston, as recorded by Lt. Frederick Mackenzie on 30 April:

Lt. Hull of the 43rd Regiment who was dangerously wounded on the 19th Instant, was left in a house in the Village of Menotomy. ’Tis said the Rebels placed three deserters from the 43rd Regt over him while he lay on a bed unable to move, and that one of those Villains threatened to shoot him for having formerly brought him to a Court Martial.

There’s no hint of such treatment in provincial sources. The head of the Massachusetts Committee of Safety, Dr. Joseph Warren, had written to Gen. Thomas Gage assuring him that Hull and Gould were getting medical care. He invited the general to send out any British army surgeon he chose.

In Igniting the American Revolution, Derek W. Beck writes that toward the end of the month, as Hull weakened, Warren sent Gage another note saying that the lieutenant hoped to see his regimental adjutant. That was Lt. William Miller; he was promoted to captain at the end of the year and was still at that rank when he died in 1789.

Hull died on 2 May. The next day, Gen. Artemas Ward ordered three lieutenants and three adjutants to escort the lieutenant’s coffin to Charlestown and turn it over to the British military. A barge from H.M.S. Somerset carried it across the Charles River to Boston.

On 4 May Lt. John Barker of the 4th Regiment wrote in his diary:

The late Lt. Hull of the 43d was buried today: he was wounded and taken Prisoner on the 19th and the day before yesterday died of his wounds; they yesterday brought him to town as he had requested it.

They won’t give up any of their Prisoners, but I hear they treat ’em pretty well.

(The photo above shows the monument to two British privates killed and buried near the North Bridge in Concord. We don’t know where Lt. Hull’s body was interred.)

Genealogy News Bytes – 26 April 2019


Some of the genealogy news items across my desktop the last three days include:

1)  News Articles:


*  
Ancestry’s IPO Talk Shows How Consumer DNA Testing Has Matured






2)  New or Updated Record Collections:

Friday Finds 26 April 2019


3)  Genealogy Education – Webinars:

 GeneaWebinars Calendar


*  Upcoming Family Tree Webinar – Tuesday, 30 April 7 p.m. PDT:  English Parish Records: More than Hatch, Match and Dispatch, by Helen V. Smith

*  Upcoming Family Tree Webinar – Wednesday, 1 May 11 a.m. PDT:  How to Use Autosomal DNA to Resolve Historical Paternity Cases, by Ugo Perego

*  Archived Family Tree Webinar:   Comparing the Genealogy Giants: Ancestry.com, FamilySearch, Findmypast and MyHeritage 2019 edition, by Sunny Morton

*  Archived Family Tree Webinar:  How I Built My Own Brick Wall,by Rebecca Whitford Koford


*  Archived Family Tree Webinar:  Finding Your 17th Century Ancestors in England, by Paul Milner

*  Archived Family Tree Webinar:  England’s Quarter Sessions Records, by Paul Milner

*  Archived Family Tree Webinar: Making Sense of the English Census, by Paul Milner

4)  Genealogy Education – Podcasts:

*  Fisher’s Top Tips Podcast:  #65 – Marking Your Pictures

*  The Photo Detective Podcast:  Episode 38: The Last Muster Journey



5)  Genealogy Education – Video:

*  23andMe YouTube:  DNA Day Videos (many)

MyHeritage YouTube:  DNA Day Videos (many)


*  Boundless Genealogy YouTube:  Genealogy Brick Wall Bertha Case Study: Step 1

*  The BYU Family History Library Library YouTube:  The Knowles Collection- Todd Knowles


*  Family History Fanatics YouTube:  Family Activities to Involve Children in Family History






8)  Did you miss the last Genealogy News Bytes – 23 April 2019?

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Copyright (c) 2019, Randall J. Seaver

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Letter from Our CEO: Celebrating 2018 and a Fresh Look at What’s Ahead

Dear Ancestry Community, As 2018 comes to a close, I want to personally thank you for being a member of the Ancestry community. We appreciate that you’ve chosen us to provide you with the tools to enable your journeys of personal discovery. All of us at Ancestry are committed to making family history discovery simpler, Read More

The post Letter from Our CEO: Celebrating 2018 and a Fresh Look at What’s Ahead appeared first on Ancestry Blog.

Facebook, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Sri Lanka Attacks, More: Monday Afternoon ResearchBuzz, April 22, 2019

TWEAKS AND UPDATES

Search Engine Journal: Facebook is Testing Upvotes and Downvotes for Comments . “Facebook has been spotted testing the ability for users to upvote and downvote comments. This test appears to be limited to the Android app, which is common when tests like these are spotted in the wild.”

Reuters: New U.S. consumer watchdog chief to continue review of complaints database, fair lending. “The new director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau will continue with reviews, begun by her predecessor, of its public complaints database and how the agency enforces discriminatory lending laws, she told Reuters.”

Washington Post: Sri Lankan government blocks social media and imposes curfew following deadly blasts. “The Sri Lankan government blocked access to social media platforms on Sunday in the wake of explosions that killed more than 200 people on the holiest day of the Christian calendar. The blasts, which targeted churches during Easter Sunday services and luxury hotels, also prompted the government to impose an immediate nationwide curfew.”

AROUND THE SEARCH AND SOCIAL MEDIA WORLD

TechCrunch: Add Craigslist to the tech platforms Russians used to manipulate the 2016 election. “In one of the weirder revelations to come out of the Mueller report released this morning, it seems that Craigslist was yet another tech platform used in Russia’s election influence campaign. Facebook? Sure. Instagram? Yup, that too. YouTube? Twitter? Oh my, yes. Even Tumblr makes an appearance (LOL. Tumblr). But Craigslist?”

New York Times: After Social Media Bans, Militant Groups Found Ways to Remain. “Hezbollah is among dozens of groups classified by the United States as terrorist entities that have learned how to stay a step ahead of the social media giants. In the past, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter have taken down the official pages of these militant groups dozens of times and banned their accounts. But Hamas and Hezbollah, in particular, have evolved by getting their supporters to publish images and videos that deliver their message — but that do not set off the alarm bells of the social media platforms. ”

Ars Technica: Facebook fights to “shield Zuckerberg” from punishment in US privacy probe. “Federal Trade Commission officials are discussing whether to hold Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg personally accountable for Facebook’s privacy failures, according to reports by The Washington Post and NBC News. Facebook has been trying to protect Zuckerberg from that possibility in negotiations with the FTC, the Post wrote.”

SECURITY & LEGAL

ZDNet: Source code of Iranian cyber-espionage tools leaked on Telegram. “In an incident reminiscent of the Shadow Brokers leak that exposed the NSA’s hacking tools, someone has now published similar hacking tools belonging to one of Iran’s elite cyber-espionage units, known as APT34, Oilrig, or HelixKitten. The hacking tools are nowhere near as sophisticated as the NSA tools leaked in 2017, but they are dangerous nevertheless.”

BetaNews: Millions of people still have pathetically weak, easily hacked passwords. “Analysis carried out by the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) found that huge numbers of people are still — despite continued advice — using weak, easy-to-guess passwords to secure their accounts. The most commonly used password on breached accounts was found to be 123456, and there were plenty of others that were similarly insecure. The NCSC, in conjunction with Have I Been Pwned’s Troy Hunt, has also published a list of the 100,000 most common passwords globally.”

RESEARCH & OPINION

Slashgear: Facebook Clear History tool: One button, no show. “It’s been 352 days since the Facebook Clear History button was announced, and still we have no such button. What’s the holdup? Why would Facebook announce a button that could wipe out an individual’s files and history on the social network’s servers, then not deliver? The answer is clear: They probably never intended on delivering such a button.”

Techdirt: Don’t Force Web Platforms To Silence Innocent People. “The U.S. House Judiciary Committee held a hearing last week to discuss the spread of white nationalism, online and offline. The hearing tackled hard questions about how online platforms respond to extremism online and what role, if any, lawmakers should play. The desire for more aggressive moderation policies in the face of horrifying crimes is understandable, particularly in the wake of the recent massacre in New Zealand. But unfortunately, looking to Silicon Valley to be the speech police may do more harm than good.” Good afternoon, Internet…

Do you like ResearchBuzz? Does it help you out? Please consider supporting it on Patreon. Not interested in commitment? Perhaps you’d buy me an iced tea. I love your comments, I love your site suggestions, and I love you. Feel free to comment on the blog, or @ResearchBuzz on Twitter. Thanks!

Facebook, Disco Dingo, Violent Videos, More: Saturday ResearchBuzz, April 20, 2019

ResearchBuzz is 21 years old today. Thank you for reading and I love you more than ever.

TWEAKS AND UPDATES

The Guardian: Facebook teams with rightwing Daily Caller in factchecking program . “Facebook’s controversial factchecking program is partnering with the Daily Caller, a rightwing website that has pushed misinformation and is known for pro-Trump content.”

BetaNews: Ubuntu Linux 19.04 ‘Disco Dingo’ is finally available for download. “Today, Linux users around the world should celebrate, as Ubuntu 19.04 ‘Disco Dingo’ is finally here! Following the Beta release, the stable version is now available for download. Keep in mind, version 19.04 is not LTS (Long Term Support), meaning it is only supported until January 2020.” Eight months or so? I think I’ll stick to the LTS releases.

CNET: More than a month later, Facebook, Instagram host New Zealand shooting videos. “It’s been over a month since a gunman opened fire at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, killing 50 people and livestreaming the massacre on Facebook. It appears the social network, as well as Facebook-owned Instagram, is still showing videos of the attack, according to a Friday report by Motherboard.”

USEFUL STUFF

MakeUseOf: How to Use Your iPhone as a Webcam: 5 Methods That Work. “Did you know it’s possible to use your iPhone as a webcam? It’s never going to quite mimic a webcam in the traditional sense, but there are a few apps that’ll record the phone’s camera and send it to a Mac, a Windows PC, another mobile device, or even to the web.”

ZDNet: 10 best free video streaming services for cord cutters. “When cord-cutting became a thing, it was all about saving money. Today, cord-cutting costs are catching up with cable. Indeed, with Disney Plus coming, with its must-watch package of Marvel Universe, Star Wars, and Disney films, plus internet TV streaming services like AT&T DirecTV Now drastically raising its prices, I can easily see a cord cutter’s total viewing bill crossing the $100-a-month barrier. Fortunately, there are some answers.”

AROUND THE SEARCH AND SOCIAL MEDIA WORLD

Ars Technica: Facebook’s auto-captions for a recent launch video are hilariously bad. “An Antares rocket built by Northrop Grumman launched on Wednesday afternoon, boosting a Cygnus spacecraft with 3.4 tons of cargo toward the International Space Station. The launch from Wallops Island, Virginia, went flawlessly, and the spacecraft arrived at the station on Friday. However, when NASA’s International Space Station program posted the launch video to its Facebook page on Thursday, there was a problem. Apparently the agency’s caption service hadn’t gotten to this video clip yet, so viewers with captions enabled were treated not just to the glory of a rocket launch, but the glory of Facebook’s automatically generated crazywords.”

Nieman Lab: Is it okay for a journalist to block a critic — not a troll, just a critic — on Twitter?. “Blocking and muting on Twitter are common ways for users to deal with the less pleasant elements of the medium: trolls who attack, Nazis who incite, misinformation peddlers, and garden-variety jerks. And that’s certainly true of journalists, who come under far more abuse than the media Twitter user. But is blocking someone who is a respected member of the commentariat — and a frequent source for your news organization — okay if he’s tweeted something critical of you or your work?”

SECURITY & LEGAL

TechCrunch: Security flaw in French government messaging app exposed confidential conversations. “The French government just launched its own messaging app called Tchap in order to protect conversations from hackers, private companies and foreign entities. But Elliot Alderson, also known as Baptiste Robert, immediately found a security flaw. He was able to create an account even though the service is supposed to be restricted to government officials.”

The Ringer: A Brief History of Facebook’s Party Lines on Privacy. “Recently, it was revealed that the company ‘mistakenly deleted’ years of Zuckerberg’s public posts on the platform. But luckily, we have the Zuckerberg Files, a digital archive of the CEO’s statements. The archive, created by privacy and internet ethics scholar Michael Zimmer, is run by the School of Information Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. It includes everything Zuckerberg has publicly said or posted about a wide range of topics—and here, we are highlighting his comments over the years on the issue of user privacy. It’s quite a journey, beginning with young bluster and ending with cagey lawyer-speak.”

Techdirt: Sixth Circuit Court Dumps Lawsuit Seeking To Hold Twitter Responsible For The Pulse Nightclub Shooting. “Another one of 1-800-LAW-FIRM’s lawsuits has been tossed for a second time. After being shut down at the district level for attempting to hold social media companies responsible for the Pulse nightclub shooting in Orlando, Florida, the law firm asked the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals to take another look at its dubious legal theories.”

RESEARCH & OPINION

Science|Business: Two different phases of Leonardo da Vinci’s “Landscape” discovered thanks to a UniBo team. “One of the best-known drawings by Leonardo da Vinci, the ‘Landscape’, is the result of two different phases, as the artist appears to have added some details at a later stage. The discovery was possible thanks to a new high-resolution digital scan performed by a team of researchers of the Department of Architecture of the University of Bologna.”

OTHER THINGS I THINK ARE COOL

Red Ferret: Death Metal AI – this neural network wants to rock. “We’ve seen a lot of interesting AI projects from romance novels to scripts. For your music fans there’s a new bot on the horizon. Relentless Doppelganger is the Death Metal rocker a neural network dreamed up. And it’s streaming 24/7.” Good morning, Internet…

Do you like ResearchBuzz? Does it help you out? Please consider supporting it on Patreon. Not interested in commitment? Perhaps you’d buy me an iced tea. I love your comments, I love your site suggestions, and I love you. Feel free to comment on the blog, or @ResearchBuzz on Twitter. Thanks!

Long Live the 28th October, 1940

Eurasian origin of mtDNA L3 and Y-chromosome DE

I’ve argued for a similar scenario for years, so it’s nice to see a preprint on the topic.

bioRxiv doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/233502

Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basic lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago.

Vicente M Cabrera et al.

Background: After three decades of mtDNA studies on human evolution the only incontrovertible main result is the African origin of all extant modern humans. In addition, a southern coastal route has been relentlessly imposed to explain the Eurasian colonization of these African pioneers. Based on the age of macrohaplogroup L3, from which all maternal Eurasian and the majority of African lineages originated, that out-of-Africa event has been dated around 60-70 kya. On the opposite side, we have proposed a northern route through Central Asia across the Levant for that expansion. Consistent with the fossil record, we have dated it around 125 kya. To help bridge differences between the molecular and fossil record ages, in this article we assess the possibility that mtDNA macrohaplogroup L3 matured in Eurasia and returned to Africa as basic L3 lineages around 70 kya. Results: The coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African L3 lineages, both around 71 kya, are not significantly different. The oldest M and N Eurasian clades are found in southeastern Asia instead near of Africa as expected by the southern route hypothesis. The split of the Y-chromosome composite DE haplogroup is very similar to the age of mtDNA L3. A Eurasian origin and back migration to Africa has been proposed for the African Y-chromosome haplogroup E. Inside Africa, frequency distributions of maternal L3 and paternal E lineages are positively correlated. This correlation is not fully explained by geographic or ethnic affinities. It seems better to be the result of a joint and global replacement of the old autochthonous male and female African lineages by the new Eurasian incomers. Conclusions: These results are congruent with a model proposing an out-of-Africa of early anatomically modern humans around 125 kya. A return to Africa of Eurasian fully modern humans around 70 kya, and a second Eurasian global expansion by 60 kya. Climatic conditions and the presence of Neanderthals played key roles in these human movements.

Link

Darned Page Order

imageTracy Reinhart is a long-time researcher who remembers way back when accessing the census meant scrolling through microfilm. Long ago she discovered her Braford ancestors’ family in Cannon, Kent, Michigan was one of those split across pages in a census. Online publishers like Ancestry and FamilySearch have to identify these split families and join them back together. That’s a fairly straightforward process unless you run into the situation Tracy ran into recently.

“Part of the 1870 census for Cannon, Kent Co. Mich.  was not filmed in page order,” she told me.  “As a result,  when a family list carries over from one page to the next,  you will find wrong family associations.” She found that for Cannon, Kent, Michigan:

I was interested to see how FamilySearch handled this situation. Researchers with access to both Ancestry.com and FamilySearch.org universally advise using Ancestry.com for census research and the 1870 census on FamilySearch.org is a good illustration of why.

  • If you search for Cannon, Kent, Michigan, you get everyone living in the entire state of Michigan!
  • If you don’t know where your person lived, but you somehow find them, FamilySearch doesn’t indicate where the person was!

The only advantage I see for searching FamilySearch’s 1870 census is that in a search you can specify another family member (in the “Other Person” field). That’s not possible on Ancestry.

But I digress…

As I compared FamilySearch.org with Ancestry.com, I noticed several interesting things.

  • The image order on FamilySearch.org matches Ancestry.com.
  • FamilySearch didn’t erroneously combine the Wolaver and Braford families. But they also didn’t correctly join the the two parts of the Brayford/Braford family.
  • While Ancestry has 31 images for Cannon, Kent, Michigan, FamilySearch has 32. Ancestry has left out one of the pages from the microfilm! I’ve seen FamilySearch do the same thing. Neither company discloses the censure. The companies deem the image to have no genealogical value so they delete it. This is a very bad practice! There is no guarantee the decision maker understands advanced methodologies that may require a knowledge of the existence of that page, its contents, or the lack thereof. (A little looking showed this particular page is facing page 31 on folio 139. It has no names on it.)
  • The digital folder number (004271429) and image number (00268) for Emma Bradford on FamilySearch.org match the image URL on Ancestry.com: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4271429_00268. That’s kind of techie, but the takeaway is that Ancestry seems to be using FamilySearch images.
  • FamilySearch misindexed the name Braford on page 30 as Bradford. Ancestry did not. Ancestry doesn’t seem to be using FamilySearch’s index.

I see several lessons we should draw from this:

  • If you don’t find your ancestor on one website, check others.
  • Search several images forward and backward from your ancestor.
  • Your ancestor’s name can be spelled differently by the same person in the same record.
  • Look at and try to understand all the information on a page.
  • When the day comes that we no longer have access to microfilm, there will be errors that we can no longer detect or overcome.
  • Everybody makes mistakes. Ancestry. FamilySearch. Microfilm. Everybody.

”Just a heads up for something that I never expected to find on Ancestry,” Tracy said.

“Grrrrrrr”

Thank you, Tracy. Image credit: Ancestry.com.

Holiday Traditions from Around the World

Whether you are opening a gift or meeting someone new at a party, the holiday season can be a time of revelation and surprise. But, as much as the season is about discoveries, it is also a time of reflection and  offers a great opportunity to connect with our family’s past and to enjoy traditions Read More

The post Holiday Traditions from Around the World appeared first on Ancestry Blog.

A Sampling of the 2019 Battle Road Season

The Patriots’ Day season starts this Saturday, 6 April, with three annual events in three towns:

  • Bedford Pole Capping in Bedford, 10:30 A.M.
  • Meriam’s Corner Exercise in Concord, 1:00 P.M.
  • Paul Revere Capture Ceremony in Lincoln, 3:00 P.M.

Two of the events thus commemorated took place on 19 Apr 1775. The pole capping is a more recent community celebration, though Liberty Poles were undoubtedly part of the Revolutionary landscape.

Here’s something I don’t recall seeing before: The town of Lexington has the domain name patriotsday.com. It redirects to the town website, which includes this page of local events from Saturday, 13 April, to Monday, 15 April—legally Patriots’ Day. These opportunities include tours of the Lexington Historical Society’s museums and reenactments of the fights in Lexington.

Back to the Minute Man National Historical Park website for a listing of events it hosts, and to Battleroad.org for related events elsewhere, including:

  • Parker’s Revenge, Saturday, 13 April, 1:00 P.M.
  • Jason Russell House fight, Arlington, Sunday, 14 April, noon. 
  • “Warlike Preparations” at the Barrett Farm, Sunday, 14 April, 1:00-4:00 P.M.
  • Lincoln Fife & Drum Salute, Sunday, 14 April, 2:00-4:00 P.M.
  • Robbins’s Ride in Acton, Sunday, 14 April, 5:00-6:00 P.M.
  • Revere’s arrival at the Lexington parsonage, Sunday, 14 April, 11:30 P.M.
  • Marches from Stow and Westford, Monday, 15 April, arriving at the bridge about 9:00 A.M.
  • North Bridge Fight and Concord Parade, Monday, 15 April, 8:30-10:00 A.M.

There are also events that by tradition take place on the actual anniversaries instead of the legal holiday:

  • Lantern procession and Ceremony at North Bridge, Thursday, 18 April, 7:45-8:45 P.M.
  • Sudbury Militia March, Friday, 19 April, arriving at the bridge about 11:30 A.M. 

And back to Minute Man Park for “The War Has Begun” on Saturday, 20 April, reenacting how Massachusetts communities responded to the strain of the siege of Boston.

This is just a sampling of the historical events taking place around Patriots’ Day, drawn from Middlesex County. Many other communities have their own traditional commemorations.